Alfonso Martínez-Taboas Adam Rosario-Rodríguez Juan A. González-Rivera


The COVID-19 pandemic is linked to a rise in mental health problems and the consequent devastating impact on social, political and health pillars. Puerto Rico has been no exception, including an aggressive and restrictive quarantine period, and several thousands of deaths attributed to the virus. The aim of this investigation is to examine the reliability and convergent validity of the Spanish version of the COVID Stress Scale (CSS). The CSS is a robust instrument to measure stress related to fears of being exposed to the virus and to the deleterious consequences in the lifestyle of the individual. Participants were 416 persons who completed an online survey that included the CSS and the assessment of depressive and anxiety symptoms. We examined item-level characteristics, factor structure and the convergent validity of the scales. The results support the five-factor structure of the CSS, excellent internal reliability, and convergent validity with scales of anxiety and depression. Overall, the Spanish version of the CSS provide a reliable and valid assessment of the new proposed COVID stress syndrome.



Abbady, A. S., El-Gilany, A-H., El-Dabee, F. A., Elsadek, A. M., Elwasafi, M., Elwasafi, M. (2021). Psychometric characteristics of COVID-Stress Scales-Arabic version (CSS-Arabic) in Egyptian and Saudi university students. Middle East Current Psychiatry, 28, 14.

Al-Omari, O., Al Sabei, S., Al Rawajfah, O., Sharour, L. A., Aljohani, K., Alomari, K…& Alhalaiqa, F. (2020). Prevalence and predictors of depression, anxiety, and stress among youth at the time of COVID-19: An online cross-sectional multicountry study. Depression Research and Treatment, 8887727.

Asmundson, G. J. G., & Taylor, S. (2020). Coronaphobia revisited: A state-of-the-art on pandemic related fear, anxiety, and stress. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 76, 102326.

Boserup, B., Mckenney, M., & Elkbuli, A. (2020). Alarming trends in US domestic violence during the COVID-19 pandemic. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 38(12), 2753-2755.

Canino, G., Shrout, P. E., NeMoyer, A., Vila, D., Santiago, K. M., García, P…& Alegría, M. (2019). A comparison of the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Puerto Rico with the United States and the Puerto Rican population of the United States. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 54, 369-378.

Champion, D. J. (1981). Basic statistics for social research (2nd ed.). MacMillan.

Christakis, N. A. (2020). Apollo’s arrow: The profound and enduring impact of coronavirus on the way we live. Little, Brown Spark.

Doornik, J. A., & Hansen, H. (2008). An omnibus test for univariate and multivariate normality. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 70, 927–939.

Ettman, C. K., Abdalla, S. M., Cohen, G. H., Sampson, L., Vivier, P. M., & Galea, S. (2020). Prevalence of depression symptoms in US adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. JAMA Network Open, 3(9), e2019686.

Evans, S., Alkan, E., Bhangoo, J. K., Tenenbaum, H., & Ng-Knight, T. (2021). Effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on mental health, wellbeing, sleep, and alcohol use in a UK student sample. Psychiatry Research, 298, 113819.

Flaherty, J. A., Gaviria, F. M., Pathak, D., Mitchell, T., Wintrob, R., Richman, J. A., & Birz, S. (1988). Developing instruments for cross-cultural psychiatric research. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 176(5), 257-263.

Fornell, C., & Lacker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 39-50.

García-Campayo, J., Zamorano, E., Ruíz, M.A., Pardo, A., Pérez-Páramo, M., López-Gómez, V., Freire, O., & Rejas, J. (2010). Cultural Adaptation into Spanish of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) Scale as a screening tool. Health Qual Life Outcomes, 8(8), 1-11.

González-Rivera, J. A., Rosario-Rodríguez, A., & Cruz, A. (2020). Escala de ansiedad por coronavirus: Un Nuevo Instrumento para Medir Síntomas de Ansiedad Asociados al COVID-19, Interacciones, 6(3), e163.

Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., & Anderson, R. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective (7th ed.). Prentice Hall.

Jeong, H., Yim, H., Lee, S., Lee, H., Potenza, M., Kwon, J…Choi, J. (2018). Discordance between self-report and clinical diagnosis of internet gaming disorder in adolescents. Scientific Reports, 8, 10084.

Kerby, D. S. (2014). The simple difference formula: An approach to teaching nonparametric correlation. Comprehensive Psychology, 3, 2165-2228.

Khosravani, V., Asmundson, G. J. G., Taylor, S., Bastan, F. S., & Ardestani, S. M. S. (2021). The Persian COVID stress scales (Persian-CSS) and COVID-019 related stress reaction in patients with obsessive-compulsive and anxiety disorders. Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and Related Disorder, 28, 100615.

Kline, T. J. B. (2005). Psychological testing: A practical approach to design and evaluation. SAGE Publications.

Kroenke, K., Strine, T. W., Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B. W., Berry, J. T., & Mokdad, A. H. (2009). The PHQ-8 as a measure of current depression in the general population. Journal of Affective Disorders, 114(1-3), 163–173.

Lee, S. (2020). Coronavirus Anxiety Scale: A brief mental health screener for COVID-19 related anxiety. Death Studies, 44(7), 1-9.

Li, Z., & Wang, S. (2020). Prevalence and predictors of general psychiatric disorders and loneliness during COVID-19 in the United Kingdom. Psychiatry Research, 291, 113267.

Lindau, S., Makelarski, J. A., Boyd, K., Doyle, K., Haider, S., Kumar, S…& Lengyel, E. (2021). Change in health-related socioeconomic risk factors and mental health during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic: A national survey of U.S. women. Journal of Women’s Health, 30(4), 502-513.

Mahamid, F. A., Veronese, G., Bdier, D., & Pancake, R. (2021). Psychometric properties of the COVID stress scales (CSS) within Arabic language in a Palestinian context. Current Psychology, 1-10.

Maneersriwongul, W., & Dixon, J. K. (2004). Instrument translation process: A methods review. Journal of Advanced Nursing 48(2), 175-186.

Montero, I., & León, O. G. (2007). A guide for naming research studies in psychology. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 7(3), 847–862.

Pagán-Torres, O., González-Rivera, J. A., & Rosario-Hernández, E. (2020a). Review-ing the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (Gad-7) in a sample of Puerto Rican adults. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, 11(1), 36885-36888.

Pagán-Torres, O., González-Rivera, J. A., & Rosario-Hernández, E. (2020b). Psychometric analyses and factor structure of the Spanish version of the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire in a general sample of Puerto Rican adults. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 42, 1-15.

Pai, N., & Vella, P.L. (2021). Covid-19 and loneliness: A rapid systematic review. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry,

Roesch, E., Amin, A., Gupta, J., & García-Moreno, C. (2020). Violence against women during covid-19 pandemic restrictions. British Medical Journal, 369, m1712.

Rossi, R., Socci, V., Talevi, D., Mensi, S., Niolu, C., Pacitti, F…& Lorenzo, D. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown measures impact on mental health among the general population in Italy. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11, 790.

Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (2001). A scaled difference chi-square test statistic for moment structure analysis. Psychometrika, 66(4), 507-514.

Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2010). A beginner's guide to structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). Erlbaum.

Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., Williams, J. B. W., & Löwe, B. (2006). A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: The GAD-7. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(10), 1092-1097.

Taylor, S. (2021). COVID stress syndrome: Clinical and nosological considerations. Current Psychiatric Reports, 23(4), 1-7.

Taylor, S., Landry, C. A., Paluszek, M. M., Fergus, T. A., McKay, D., & Asmundson, G. J. G. (2020). Development and initial validation of the COVID stress scales. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 72, 102232.

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (March 5, 2021). Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey.

Xiong, J., Lipsitz, O., Nasri, F., Lui, L., Gill, L. H., Phan, L…& McIntyre, R. S. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in the general population: A systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 277, 55-64.
Cómo citar
Martínez-Taboas, A., Rosario-Rodríguez, A., & González-Rivera, J. A. (2021). Covid Stress Scales: The psychosocial impact of COVID-19 in Latinos/as. Revista Puertorriqueña De Psicologí­a, 32(1), 104–118. Recuperado a partir de
Artículo de investigación