Ronald Brown Gerald Silva Rivera Marisol López González Katie Pan Kuhn


This study evaluated whether self-efficacy, dispositional optimism, and resilience affected teachers’ classroom management in high school classrooms in Puerto Rico. A quantitative research design was adopted which utilized multiple regression analyses of four Likert-scale questionnaires. The sample was comprised of high school teachers (N = 58) from seven public high schools. Responses to the Behavior and Instructional Management Scale (BIMS) subscale of behavior management indicated that each variable was significantly associated with the dependent variable of behavior management in the classroom, but not with the subscale of instructional management. Significant associations between the scales and their associated subscales of the above measures are explored with implications for teachers and the learning environment. The study concludes with suggestions for future research, in particular on teacher resilience in relation to hope and zest, as well as ways to maintain teacher optimism and how an understanding of these variables may assist school psychologists in the Puerto Rican context.



About Resilience. Resilience Research Centre. (2021).

Allinder, R. M. (1994). The relationship between efficacy and the instructional practices of special education teachers and consultants. Teacher Education and Special Education, 17, 86–95.

Aloe, A., Amo, L., & Shanahan, M. (2014). Classroom management self-efficacy and burnout: A multivariate meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 26(1) 101-126.

Anderson, K., Kochan, F., Kensler, L. A. W., & Reames, E. H. (2018). Academic optimism, enabling structures, and student achievement: Delving into relationships. Journal of School Leadership, 28(4), 434–461.

Arcelay-Rojas, Y. A. (2019). Exploring Puerto Rican preservice teachers' resilience: A focus group study. Journal of Educational Research and Practice, 9(1), 369–385.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioural change. Psychology Review, 84(2), 191–215.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Prentice-Hall.

Barrientos-Soto, A. (2016). Alternative education and the development of resilience in youth who have abandoned school in Puerto Rico. Revista de Paz y Conflictos, 9(2), 223–243.

Beard, K. S., Hoy, W. K., & Hoy, A. W. (2010). Academic optimism of individual teachers: Confirming a new construct. Teaching & Teacher Education, 26(5), 1136–1144.

Botha, T. (2020). Flourishing beyond borders: Character strengths, resilience and self-perceived well-being of the accompanying expatriate partner during international relocation. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. North-West University, South Africa.

Brown, R. (2019). Estudio exploratorio de autoeficacia entre maestros K–12 en Puerto Rico [Exploratory study of self efficacy among K-12 teachers in Puerto Rico]. Psicologías, 3, 58–88.

Calderón Soto, J. (2013). Panorama del sector educativo. Consejo de Educación de Puerto Rico.

Cano-García, F. J., Sanduvete-Chaves, S., Chacón-Moscoso, S., Rodríguez-Franco, L., García-Martínez, J., Antuña-Bellerín, M. A., & Pérez-Gil, J. A. (2015). Factor structure of the Spanish version of the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R): Testing several models. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 15(2), 139-148.

Cerit, Y. (2011). The relationship between preservice classroom teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs and classroom management orientation. Buca Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, S30, 156–174.

Fahy, P., Wu, H.-C., & Hoy, W. K. (2010). Individual academic optimism of secondary school teachers: A new concept and its measures. In W. K. Hoy & M. Diapaola (Eds.), Analyzing school contexts: Influences of principals and teachers in the service of students (pp. 209–227). Information Age Publishing Inc.

Gu, Q., & Day, C. (2007). Teachers’ resilience: A necessary condition for effectiveness. Teaching & Teacher Education, 23, 1302–1316.

Guo, G., & Mullan Harris, K. (2000). The mechanisms mediating the effects of poverty on children’s intellectual development. Demography, 37(4), 431–447.

Heilemann, M. V., Lee, K., & Kury, F. S. (2003). Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Resilience Scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 11(1), 61-72.

Herman, K. C., Hickmon-Rosa, J. E., & Reinke, W. M. (2018). Empirically derived profiles of teacher stress, burnout, self-efficacy, and coping and associated student outcomes. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 20, 90–100.

Homrich-Knieling, M. (2019). From rapport to relationships: Shifting our practice from classroom management to community. Voices from the Middle, 27(1), 58–61.

Hong, J. Y. (2012). Why do some beginning teachers leave the school, and others stay? Understanding teacher resilience through psychological lenses. Teachers & Teaching: Theory and Practice, 18(4), 417–440.

Huan, V. S., Yeo, L. S., Ang, R. P., & Chong, W. H. (2006). The influence of dispositional optimism and gender on adolescents’ perception of academic stress. Adolescents, 41(163), 533–546.

Instituto del Desarrollo de la Juventud. (2021). Perfil de niños y niñas en pobreza en Puerto Rico [Profile of children in poverty in Puerto Rico].

Irizarry, R., & Quintero, A. (2005). Nuestra Escuela and the University of Puerto Rico: The joint quest for responsive schools for dropouts and students at risk. The Civic Engagement Imperative Conference, Providence, RI.

Lesha, J. (2017). Gender differences in primary school teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs. European Journal of Education Studies, 3(10), 731-740.

MacroTrends (2020). U.S. Unemployment Rate 1991-2019. MacroTrends.

Malinen, O. P., & Savolainen, H. (2016). The effect of perceived school climate and teacher efficacy in behavior manage-ment on job satisfaction and burnout: A longitudinal study. Teaching and Teacher Education, 60, 144–152.

Marcus, J. (2019, April 26). In Puerto Rico, the odds are against high school grads who want to go to college. Hechiner Report.

Martin, N. K., & Sass, D. A. (2010). Construct validation of the Behavior and Instructional Management Scale. Teaching & Teacher Education, 26(5), 1124-1135.

Martin, N. K., Yin, Z., & Baldwin, B. (1998). Construct validation of the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control Inventory. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 33(2), 6-15.

McLeod, J. D., & Nonnemaker, J. M. (2000). Poverty and child emotional and behavioral problems: Racial/ethnic differences in processes and effects. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 41, 137–161.

Milligan, S. (2018). The skilled worker exodus. US News and World Report.

Peón, H. (2020, November 22). It is 2020, and Puerto Rico is still a colony. Harvard Political Review.

Puerto Rico Department of Education School District. (2021). Quick Stats.

Putwain, D. W., & von der Embse, N. P. (2019). Teacher self-efficacy moderates the relations between imposed pressure from imposed curriculum changes and teacher stress. Educational Psychology, 39(1), 51-64.

Razmjoo, S. A., & Ayoobiyan, H. (2019). On the relationship between teacher resilience and self-efficacy: The case of Iranian EFL teachers. Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning, 11(23), 277–292.

Reeves, D. (2012). Confront teacher burnout with more safety, time, and R-E-S-P-EC-T. Educational Leadership, 7(12),

Rolón-Martínez (2021). El desarrollo de políticas públicas: Una perspectiva des-de la práctica de la psicología escolar. In M. R. Martínez-Plana, M. A. Moreno-Torres, & I. Serrano-Carcía (eds), Apor-taciones desde Puerto Rico a la psicología escolar, (pp. 381-395). COATTI.

Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A reevalu-ation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 67, 1063–1078.

Sezgin, F., & Erdogan, O. (2015). Academic optimism, hope, and zest for work as predictors of teacher self-efficacy and perceived success. Educational Sci-ences: Theory and Practice, 15(1), 7–19.

Taylor, J. L. (2013). The power of resilience: A theoretical model to empower, encourage and retain teachers. The Qualitative Report, 18(70), 1–25.

Therriault, S., Li, Y., Bhatt, M. P., & Narlock, J. (2017). Puerto Rico School Characteristics and Student Graduation: Implications for Research and Policy. REL 2017-266. Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast & Islands.

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Hoy, A. W. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching & Teacher Education, 17(7), 783–805.

Ungar, M., McRuer, J., Liu, X., Theron, L., Blais, D., & Schnurr, M. A. (2020). Social-ecological resilience through a biocul-tural lens: a participatory methodology to support global targets and local priorities. Ecology and Society 25(3), 8.

Viviana, N., & Rullán, A. (2010). Reflexiones sobre la deserción escolar en Finlandia y Puerto Rico [Reflections on school dropout in Finland and Puerto Rico]. Educational Policy Archives, 18, 1–33.

Wagnild, G. M., & Young, H. M. (1993). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Resilience Scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1, 165–178.

Wilson VanVoorhis, C. (2007). Understanding power and rules of thumb for determining sample sizes. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 3(2), 43–50.
World Population Review (2021). Puerto Rico Population 2021 (Demographics, Maps, Graphs).
Cómo citar
Brown, R., Silva Rivera, G., López González, M., & Kuhn, K. P. (2021). Teacher self-efficacy, dispositional optimism, resiliency, and classroom management in high schools in Puerto Rico. Revista Puertorriqueña De Psicologí­a, 32(1), 18–32. Recuperado a partir de
Artículo de investigación